Volume 14, Number 2, February 2011


“I too will have my say; I too will tell what I know.

For I am full of words, and the spirit within me compels me;

Inside I am like bottled-up wine, like new wineskins ready to burst.

I must speak and find relief; I must open my lips and reply.

I will show partiality to no one.  Nor will I flatter any man.”   Job 32:17-21


“That which ordinary men are fit for I am qualified in, and the best of me is diligence.”

Earl of Kent

Shakespeare’s King Lear

Act I, scene iv, ll. 32-34


[“As I See It” is a monthly electronic magazine compiled and edited by Doug Kutilek.  Its purpose is to address important issues of the day and to draw attention to worthwhile Christian and other literature in order to aid believers in Jesus Christ, especially pastors, missionaries and Bible college and seminary students to more effectively study and teach the Word of God.  The editor’s perspective is that of an independent Baptist of fundamentalist theological persuasion.


AISI is sent free to all who request it by writing to the editor at: DKUTILEK@juno.com.  You can be removed from the mailing list at the same address.  Back issues sent on request.  All back issues may be accessed at http://www.KJVOnly.org


All articles are by the editor (unless otherwise noted) and are copyrighted but may be reproduced for distribution, provided the following conditions are met: 1. articles must be reproduced in unedited, unabridged form; 2. the writer must be properly credited; and, 3. such reproduction must be for free distribution only.  Permission to distribute in any other form must be secured in writing beforehand.  Permission for reproduction in Christian print periodicals will generally be given upon request.]



America’s “Terminal” Generation: is it Here?


“Caught in the relaxing interval between one moral code and the next, an unmoored generation surrenders itself to luxury, corruption, and a restless disorder of family and morals, in all but a remnant clinging desperately to old restraints and ways.  Few souls feel any longer that ‘it is beautiful and honorable to die for one’s country.’  A failure of leadership may allow a state to weaken itself with internal strife.  At the end of the process a decisive defeat in war may bring a final blow, or barbarian invasion from without may combine with barbarism welling up from within to bring the civilization to a close”


Will and Ariel Durant

The Lessons of History, p. 93

(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968)


[The Durants were the authors of the massive eleven-volume set, The Story of Civilization.  The little book, The Lessons of History, was written to summarize the general lessons that their protracted study of the history of Western civilization had taught them.  Though written in 1968, this is an almost prophetic description of the present day in America, and Western Europe.  In context, the Durants were describing the typical final generation in a society before that civilization dies.  How close are we to that precipice?--Editor]





The Teaching of Jesus Concerning God the Father by A. T. Robertson.  Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock, 1998 reprint of 1904 (?) American Tract Society (?) edition.  182 pp., paperback.  $20.00


If the reader needs an introduction to A. T. Robertson, let him see A. T. Robertson: Pre-Eminent Baptist Scholar, in AISI, 2:7, July 1999.


If we are correctly informed as to the original publication date of this little volume, then it was among the first published works of Prof. A. T. Robertson.  In this closely-reasoned book, he explores the explicit teaching of Jesus regarding God the Father, namely: that He IS, that He can be known, that Jesus Himself had a special, indeed unique, relationship with the Father, that He uniquely was able to fully reveal Him to man, and that He alone can restore the sinner to the Father’s favor.  The nature of the Father is also shared by the Son--holiness, character, etc.  The inner-relations of the Three Persons of the Trinity, as presented by Jesus, are also discussed.  Jesus employed numerous titles and designations for God the Father; these are likewise examined. 


The relationship of the Father to unbelievers and to believers are presented and contrasted, as is His relationship to the creation.  It is evident that in part the author’s motivation in writing this book was to refute the then-current (and now re-current) claim that God as “love” and “Father” could never be judge and condemner of sinners, the consequence of this aberrant view being a mushy universalism that conveniently ignored the Biblical teaching of God’s holiness, justice and office as righteous judge of human sin.


While Robertson allows for the possibility of theistic evolution, he strongly rejects as impossible any kind of naturalistic evolution, or spontaneous generation of life.  In one passage, he seems to place regeneration as a necessary precursor to saving faith (p. 121).   We have not found such a claim anywhere else in the thousands of pages by Robertson we have read.


All in all, a worthwhile, serious but readable volume.  The Person and nature of God the Father, as well as the Biblical doctrine of the Trinity, are sadly and shamefully neglected subjects in our pulpits and classrooms today.

---Doug Kutilek



Quotes from The Teaching of Jesus Concerning God the Father--


“It is not possible to reconcile the teaching of Jesus about the Father’s relation to the world with materialism in any form.  Naturalistic evolution is repugnant to the fundamental conceptions of Jesus.  So is every theory that postulates the eternity of matter.” (p. 92)


“At any rate, we must not seek for Paul’s theology through the eyes of Augustine, but study Paul for ourselves.  This is not to say that the world is not under a great debt both to Augustine and Calvin for their interpretations of Paul.  But we must not charge Paul with the excesses or excrescences of even the greatest of theological teachers.” (p. 141)


“Christ is not man’s effort to find God, but God’s endeavor to reveal himself to men.  We can never reach the truth about God or man if we put man in the center of our theological system.” (p. 158)



Lincoln’s Men: The President and His Private Secretaries by Daniel Mark Epstein.  New York: HarperCollins, 2009.  262 pp., hardback.  $26.99


When President-elect Abraham Lincoln, still in Illinois, began to assemble his administrative team, he chose for his personal secretary a twenty-nine year-old immigrant from Europe with journalistic and publishing experience, John Nicolay, who, though 5’10” tall, weighed a mere 120 lbs.  He also chose as a second secretary recent Brown University graduate and lawyer-in-training, twenty-two-year-old John Hay, a mere 5’4” tall, a full foot shorter than his new boss.   Congressional appropriations were so small that they allowed Lincoln but one secretary to handle his personal correspondence, and so Hay had to in reality be hired as an employee of the Interior Department, but assigned to the White House.  Both Nicolay and Hay were single and so could devote extraordinarily long hours and much energy in serving Lincoln.  They both lived at the White House during their time of service.  Lincoln valued them for their honesty, loyalty and versatility; and no doubt Hay’s capacity to tell a story nearly as well as Lincoln himself was another valued asset.  A third, less praiseworthy secretary, William Stoddard, was added later (he alone of the three was able to get along with the fiery and tempestuous Mrs. Lincoln).


Indeed, screening and answering Lincoln’s voluminous mail was a small part of their actual duties.  Throughout Lincoln’s first term (1861-1865), they functioned in the roles of what today would be called chief of staff, appointment secretary, gate-keepers to the President’s office, as well as his confidants, advisers, special envoys, and more.  Their schedules were so full and their labors so intense, that they both repeatedly needed vacations away from Washington to recuperate, absences sometimes extending to weeks, even months.  Lincoln of course had no such opportunities to get away from the pressure of Washington, except for his occasional visits to his generals in the field (rarely pleasant affairs).  His chief release was his escapes to the telegraph office a hundred yards from the White House, and personal socializing or visits to the theater in the capital.


With the War drawing to a close in late 1864, and the end in sight by the time of Lincoln’s second inauguration in March, 1865, both Nicolay and Hay had plans to leave the administration and pursue other things.  Before they could do so, Lincoln was assassinated (Hay was at the White House that fateful night, and was at Lincoln’s side when he passed; Nicolay was in the process of returning by boat from a trip to Cuba).


Nicolay and Hay, with access to the great bulk of Lincoln’s personal papers, and the blessing of Robert Lincoln, and with their own experiences, remembrances, and correspondence, wrote a 10-volume biography of Lincoln that was published in the 1880s, and was the closest thing to a definitive biography of Lincoln written in the 19th century.  This ten-volume biography in the original edition is both rare and expensive.  Hay had kept a personal diary throughout his years at the White House; it was published in 1997, though as preserved and published it is not complete--at least 8 pages covering part of November 1861 were cut out in the past by persons unknown; additional volumes of the journal may have been completely lost.  (William Stoddard, not to be out done, wrote six books about Lincoln).


In June, 1865, both Nicolay (with his new bride) and Hay sailed to France where Hay stayed for two years, Nicolay four.  Nicolay’s post-Lincoln life was chiefly taken up with writing.  Hay on the other hand had an important place in American political life, ultimately serving as McKinley’s--and Teddy Roosevelt’s--Secretary of State (second in line to the Presidency at the time), in which position he negotiated several famous and important international treaties and agreements.  At least five biographies of Hay have been written.


This is an adequate and readable treatment of the lives and service of these men (with bibliography to direct the interested reader further), and will be of interest to all Lincolnians, of which I am unashamedly one.

---Doug Kutilek



The Great Bridge by David McCullough.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.  636 pp., hardback.


Today we think of “New York City” proper as a sprawling behemoth composed of all five boroughs--Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island--, and we think of passage from one to another of these as being no more involved than crossing a bridge, passing through a tunnel, hopping a subway, or getting on a ferry.  Multiplied millions of people do it every day.  But this is the modern perspective.  Until the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883, each of these boroughs was truly a separate entity, Manhattan and Brooklyn in particular being separate and very different cities, practically “oceans” apart, though separated by just a half mile of salt water (the East River is no river at all, but an arm of the ocean connecting the Atlantic with the Long Island Sound).  To pass from Brooklyn on the far west end of Long Island to New York City on Manhattan Island required taking a ferry or other watercraft, no simple matter, especially in rough or frigid weather. 


Naturally, the idea of a bridge across the East River had long been discussed, but the engineering for it was not available until the 19th century.  Suspension bridges (as opposed to arched bridges--out of the question on the heavily-traveled East River) were a 19th century invention, appearing first in France and England, then in America.  The Ohio River and then the Niagara River had been successfully spanned with them, but the challenges were much greater in New York.


A German-born civil engineer named John Roebling proposed and planned to build such a Brooklyn-to-Manhattan bridge, and had received approval to do so, when his untimely death at 63 brought the project to a halt.  His engineer son, Washington, long his father’s assistant, but only in his early 30s, was given the immense task that would require many major innovations.  Washington proved up to the task both in knowledge, experience and temperament, and almost lost his life in the process.


The bridge was partly a private- and partly a public-financed venture, and there were more than hints of financial corruption among those who controlled the venture.  The cities of Brooklyn and New York City provided the lion’s share of the money, and getting the politicians in both cities to work together for the completion of the project was complex, complicated and difficult.


The first major obstacle was establishing the foundations for the two towers of the bridge (when finished, far and away the tallest structures in the pre-skyscraper New York skyline).  Enclosed massive iron-sided, open-bottomed boxes were slowly submerged, as workmen inside the stifling, dark, dank and pressurized vessels dug their way down, inch by inch through mud and sediment, gravel, and rocks, until the whole structure rested, in one case more than 40 feet, in the other, more than 70 feet below the surface.  Working in these pressurized submerged chambers produced in the men “the bends”--a build-up of nitrogen in the blood, which comes out as bubbles in the blood, joints, etc. when the pressure is removed, resulting in excruciating pain and sometimes in death.  Washington Roebling himself, exposed to the compressed air more than any other single individual due to his constant presence at the job site, greatly impaired his health and he indeed was very close to death for months because of the bends.


After the foundation platforms were laid and built up, the towers were erected, the cables strung, the roadbed laid, and the bridge opened, taking 14 years to complete, triple the time originally projected, and at $15 million, double the original cost estimate.  It was an immediate success and a great marvel.  It was later calculated to have been “overbuilt” by a factor of between 7 and 10, meaning that it could support 7 to 10 times the actual expected load from traffic; this proved important when horse-drawn wagons gave way to motorized vehicles in the decades following.


The bridge, supplemented and superceded by dozens more in the New York City region, nevertheless still stands and is used daily.  It remains an engineering marvel, considering the resources available to the builders.


With the completion of this volume, we have read in the past decade all of McCullough’s published books, and have reviewed all of them sans one (by blundering oversight) in these pages: The Johnstown Flood (AISI 4:10); The Path Between the Seas: the Creation of the Panama Canal 1870-1914 (5:11); Brave Companions: Portraits in History (7:10); 1776 (8:7); Mornings on Horseback  (8:11); and Truman (11:9).  The one we neglected to review was John Adams.  Throughout, a high level of competence in research and writing was evinced, and the volumes were always highly instructive.  These collected reviews will be sent via e-mail on request.


Whether McCullough has any other books in the works, we cannot say, but we can hope.

---Doug Kutilek



An Annotated Chronological List of Holy Land Pilgrimage Accounts

Part I

By Doug Kutilek


[Note: in response to our previous article, The Fifth “Gospel”: How the Holy Land Illuminates the Bible Like Nothing Else Can & Some Notable Holy Land Travelogues (AISI 14:1), more than one reader wrote in to say that several of the long out-of-print books we mentioned there were available in electronic format at www.archive.org, among other places.  Many of the additional titles mentioned here are also available on line.  Being a dyed-in-the-wool devotee of printed-and-bound, paper-and-ink books, we nevertheless pass on this information, since such volumes might prove otherwise unavailable--Editor]


“Pilgrimage, . . . like many other acts of piety, may be reasonable or superstitious, according to the principles upon which it is performed.  Long journies in search of truth are not commanded.  Truth, such as is necessary to the regulation of life, is always found where it is honestly sought.  Change of place is no natural cause of the increase of piety, for it inevitably produces dissipation of mind.  Yet, since men go every day to view the fields where great actions have been performed, and return with stronger impressions of the event, curiosity of the same kind may naturally dispose us to view that country whence our religion had its beginning; and I believe no man surveys those awful scenes without some confirmation of holy resolutions.  That the Supreme Being may be more readily propitiated in one place than in another, is the dream of idle superstition; but that some places may operate upon our own minds in an uncommon manner, is an opinion which hourly experience will justify.  He who supposes that his vices may be more successfully combated in Palestine, will, perhaps, find himself mistaken, yet he may go thither without folly; he who thinks they will be more freely pardoned, dishonours at once his reason and religion.”

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

Rasselas, quoted from

Samuel Johnson: Rasselas, Poems, and Selected Prose,

Edited by Bertrand H. Bronson

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958

p. 530


The urge to “visit the Holy Land” and see the reported and in some cases actual locations of various events in the life of Jesus, as well as those of the Apostles, and also OT persons, received a huge impetus from the visit, circa A. D. 326 of Emperor Constantine (the first nominal Christian emperor; perhaps we need a new acronym “CINO,” i.e., “Christian in name only”) and his aged mother Helena to the Holy Land.  They commissioned the construction of numerous church buildings and shrines at different locations (often with “made-to-order”  identifications, based on nothing more than imagination; after 250 years and several devastating wars followed by rebuilding on the ruins, many locations were simply unknown and unknowable).  Thereafter, in imitation of the journey of “St. Helena,” many flocked to Palestine, not merely on information- and perspective-gathering journeys, but as religious pilgrimages which came to be regarded as inherently having saving merit.  “Meritorious pilgrimages” to various “holy” sites became for centuries all the rage, not just to Palestine but throughout professing Christendom, to cathedrals that boasted of relics of the saints, to the graves of “saints,” and more.  Even very early on, the abuse became so widespread that Jerome (who himself long resided at Bethlehem) and others in the 4th century already roundly denounced such superstitious travel.


Perhaps a decade or more ago, when I first began collecting Holy Land pilgrimage and travelogue accounts and compiling a bibliography of the same, I thought that I would likely uncover some 30, 40, perhaps 50 such accounts, but the further I got into the subject, the more I came to realize that there is an immense corpus of hundreds--at least--written accounts of Holy Land pilgrimages and tours, from the 4th century A.D. on, written originally in a dozen languages or more, and I am sure I have not been able to ferret out even a small part of the whole.  Even if I had located them all, and then had access to them all or even a large percentage of them (which I do not, not by a very large margin), and could I and had I read them all--a vastly more unattainable goal--, it would be impossible to give a complete accounting of them in these pages, even if a whole years’ worth of issues were filled with nothing else.  That being the case, I must give a brief accounting of such as I have access to or have information about, and will limit myself to accounts published in English, originally or in translation.  I will list the accounts in a chiefly chronological order of the year(s) of travel in Palestine, or of original publication date.  I hope I will hereby pique the interest of the reader to get and read one or several of these accounts.--Editor


General reference


Note: these articles will give a general overview of the subject and will each give a selected bibliography.


“Pilgrimages,” The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, edited by John McClintock and James Strong.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1981 reprint of original Harper and Brothers edition, 1867-1887.  Vol. VIII, pp. 205-208.


“Pilgrimage,” by William Edward Scudamore, in A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, edited by William Smith and Samuel Cheetham.  London: John Murray, 1880.  Vol. II, pp.1635-1642. 


A detailed article regarding early pilgrimages, especially to Palestine, in small print on double-columned pages.  Notes some of the bizarre excesses of pilgrimages and pilgrims, such as: “Paula, the friend of Jerome, [who] visited every sacred place and object of which she obtained information.  ‘Entering the sepulchre she kissed the stone of the resurrection, which the angel had moved away from the door of the tomb; and licked with faithful mouth the very place of the body in which the Lord had lain; as if being athirst she longed for water.’ “ (p. 1636)


“Pilgrimages,” by James F. Driscoll, in The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, edited by Samuel Macauley Jackson.  Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977 reprint of original Funk and Wagnall’s edition.  Vol. 9, pp. 69-70.


“Pilgrimages,” in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by F. L. Cross.  London: Oxford University Press, 1958.  Pp. 1072, 1073.


“Pilgrimages,” by Mary E. Rogers, in New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited J. D. Douglas.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978.  Revised edition, p. 782.






Early Travels in Palestine, edited by Thomas Wright.  London: H. G. Bohn, 1848.  517 pp.


Contains the accounts of nine Holy Land Pilgrims, from Bishop Arculf in A. D.  700 to Henry Maundrell in 1697, most of whom I have not previously seen mentioned anywhere else, including the aforesaid Bishop Arculf;  Willibald (721-727); Bernard the Wise (867), Saewulf (1102/3); Sigurd the Crusader (1107-1111); and some few I have: Bertrand de la Brocquiere (1432/3); and also Benjamin of Tudela 1160-1173); and John Maundeville (1322-1356).  Currently available via “print-on-demand” in paperback.




Palestine Pilgrims Text Society.  London: 1888-1897(1898?).  12 (or 13?) vols., plus index.  Reportedly reprinted by AMS 1971.


“The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, also known as PPTS, provides a collection of medieval documents, primarily chronicles of individual pilgrims such as during the Crusades.  The society was established in London, for the purpose of providing translations of those documents which were written by pilgrims and other travelers between the 4th and 15th centuries.  Particular attention was given to accounts with geographical or topographical information, as well as accounts which discussed the manners and customs of the Holy Land.  The original narratives were written in a variety of languages, including Greek, Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, Old French, Russian, and German.


The Society first started publishing its work in 1884, and continued for eleven years, publishing a total of twelve volumes. In 1896, these works were transferred to the Palestine Exploration Fund, for distribution to the members of the PPTS.


The collection is often cited as source material in scholarly works about the time period. A version is also available as The Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.”

Wikipedia entry, “Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society”

Accessed January 18, 2011


Many of these volumes are available in on-demand paperback reprint.  Nearly all, and perhaps all, are available on-line at: www.archive.org. 




Adler, Elkan N., editor, Jewish Travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts.  London: George Routledge & Sons, 1930.  Dover Publications, New York, 1987 reprint.  392 pp.


This book is based on the earlier publication, Otser Massaoth (Hebrew for “Treasury of Travels”), by J. D. Eisenstein (New York, 1926; 352 pp.), a compilation of 24 accounts, in Hebrew, made by Jewish travelers in the period 1165-1839.   In this adaptation of Eisenstein’s earlier compilation, the author tells us that “some of the Palestine itineraries have been omitted [the very part that would most interest us!--Editor]; the texts are frequently abridged, and the translations are not always original,” (preface, p. v).  Be that as it may, the book is still of interest due to the otherwise inaccessibleness of most of its contents.




Wilkinson, John, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades.  Jerusalem: Ariel Publishing House, 1977.  225 pp.  London: Aris & Phillips, 2002.  Second revised edition 420 (?) pp.


I have not examined this book, but it looks quite promising, and is rather pricey at $50 and up, even in on-demand-reprint.


Individual Accounts




Helena, Mother of Emperor Constantine


The brief account of this trend-setting pilgrimage is to be found in Eusebius’ Life of Constantine, of which the most readily available English edition is in The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series.  Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986 reprint.  Vol. I, pp. 530-532 (=Life of Constantine, book 3, chapters 41-47).




Bordeaux Pilgrim


The earliest known Christian pilgrim from Western Europe is an unnamed individual from Bordeaux, who left a brief account in Latin.  The text is translated in The Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, vol. I.; and John Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades, pp. 153-163.  The Latin text is found in P. Geyer, Itinera Hierosolymitana saeculi IIII-VIII, pp. 133ff (I have Dr. Ed Yamauchi of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio to thank for directing me to these three sources).  There is also a brief article, “Bordeaux Pilgrim, the” in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by F. L. Cross, p. 187. 


4th Century (end)




In the late 4rd century, a Spanish abbess or nun “of considerable intelligence and powers of observation” (Cross) traveled to Egypt, the Holy Land, Edessa, Asia Minor and Constantinople.  Originally ascribed to “St Silvia,” this Latin account is now generally understood to be the work of one Etheria (or possibly Egeria / Aiheria).  It is preserved in a single 11th century manuscript discovered in 1884.  See “Etheria, Pilgrimage of” in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by F. L. Cross, p. 466; “Pilgrimage of Etheria” by L. Feehan, in New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited J. D. Douglas Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978.  Revised edition, p. 781.




Pilgrim of Piacenza


Inter alia, this account identified the traditional site of Cana of Galilee with Kafr Kanna.  See John Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades.


circa 1360


Mandeville, John, The Travels of John Mandeville. Edited by Arthur Layard.  New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1899.  202 pp.  


A 14th century Latin account of travels through Holy Land, Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Arabia, India, etc.   It is undoubtedly chiefly a compilation based on others’ accounts from  the12th and 13th centuries, though it may contain some first-hand observations of the Holy Land.  Among several editions is that listed above, which is available at www.archive.org.  An excerpt is given in Biblical Archaeology Review 35:6, November/December 2009, pp. 76, 78.  Wikipedia, “John Mandeville,” has an extensive, scholarly article about this late Medieval adventurer, with good documentation and bibliography.




Bernhard von Breydenbach, Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam [“Wandering in the Holy Land”]. 


 A Latin account of a 1482-3 journey.  Contemporary translations were made into German, French, etc., and between 1486 and 1522, twelve editions were published, with many others in various languages later.  An on-demand reprint edition of an (apparently) 1904 French version of this work is currently available.  All you may want to know about this book can be found in Bernhard von Breydenbach and His Journey to the Holy Land, 1482-83: A Bibliography, compiled by Hugh Wm. Davies.  London: J. J. Leighton, 1911.  45 pp. plus 50+ woodcut reproductions and a ten-page index.  On line at www.archive.org.  (And, by the by, this book by Davies also contains on p. 43 a list of fifteen--15!--more Holy Land pilgrimage accounts, dating between 1422-1651, nearly all in languages other than English--French, Latin, Italian, German, Spanish--so we will not list them here.  I said this was a bottomless pit for research!)




Sir Richard Guylforde [also spelled Guilford]


Ellis, Henry, ed., The Pylgrymage of Sir Richard Guylforde to the Holy Land, A.D.  AMS reprint, 1968 of 1851 Camden Society edition.  92 pp. This account was prepared by the chaplain of Sir Richard, after his death in Palestine in September 1506.  He left with an entourage in April, 1506, traveled by land to the Mediterranean shores then by ship, and only set foot in the Holy Land on August 27, where he soon took sick and died at Jerusalem on September 6.  For more details, see the entry in The Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sydney Lee, or the Wikipedia entry, which is heavily dependent on the former.




Sandys, George [1578-1644], Sandys Travels, Containing an History of the Original and Present State of the Turkish Empire; . . . .  A Description of the Holy-Land; of the Jews, and several Sects of Christians Living there, of Jerusalem, Sepulchre of Christ, Temple of Solomone; etc. etc.  London: John Williams, Jr, 1673.  Seventh edition.  240 pp.  In this edition, “book three” (of the four, bound in one volume), on the Holy-land, occupies pp. 110-169.  Sandys, an observant traveler, began his journey in 1610, and published his account in 1615. Other editions followed in 1621, 1627, 1637, 1652, and 1673.  He spent most of the decade of the 1620s in the English colony of Virginia.  The Dictionary of National Biography chronicles his life.  The book is available on line at www.archive.org, in paperback print-on-demand, and (currently) in 3 copies of 17th century editions, each selling for somewhere north of $1,200!




Lithgow, William [1582-1645].  The Total Discourse of the Rare Adventures and Paineful Peregrinations.  Reprinted Glasgow, 1906.  448 pp.  Amidst a chronicle of many other travels (he claimed traveling 36,000 miles on foot), is an account of his journeys through the Holy Land in 1612.  Both Wikipedia and especially the Dictionary of National Biography have informative accounts of his life and writings, and www.archive.com has this volume available.




Coryat(e), Thomas [c. 1577-1617].  Accounts of his travels through the Middle East, including the Holy Land, all the way to Persian and India, are included in Hakluytus Posthumus, by Samuel Purchas (1625).


Coryate was an eccentric, being an unofficial jester for Prince Henry, son of King James I.  He more or less initiated the “Grand Tour” of Europe traveling chiefly on foot throughout Central and Southern Europe (1608ff), from which he issued two volumes of observations (he is credited with introducing both the fork, and the word “umbrella” into the English world).  In 1612, he set off again--on foot--to travel through Greece, the Middle East, and beyond, reaching Agra in India, where he died.  A recent account of his life was published as Odd Tom Coryate: the English Marco Polo, by R. E. Pritchard.  Sutton, 2004.  Both Dictionary of National Biography and Wikipedia have informative entries on Coryate.




Maundrell, Henry [1665-1701], Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, at Easter A.D. 1697.  Oxford: 1703.  Second edition: 1707.  Third edition, 1714.  Perth, Scotland, 1800; fourth edition.  Boston: Samuel G. Simpkins, 1836; first American edition.


Praised as excellent and accurate, and a faithful guide often employed by later travelers. Taken note of in Adam Clarke’s commentary at the end of comments on John 19, vol. V, p. 655; where I first learned of it.  The Dictionary of National Biography entry on Henry Maundrell, who was Oxford-educated, and the chaplain of the English colony in Aleppo, Syria, is very informative.




Clayton, Robert [1695-1758], A Journey from Grand Cairo to Mount Sinai and Back Again, in Company with Some Missionaries de Propaganda Fide. 


See the Dictionary of National Biography for the particulars regarding this Irish bishop of Arian inclinations.


 [Part II will follow in the next issue]